Droplet deformation and breakup plays a significant role in liquid fuel atomization processes. The droplet behavior needs to be understood in detail, in order to derive simplified models for predicting the different processes in combustion chambers. Therefore, the behavior of single droplets at low aerodynamic loads was investigated using the Lagrangian, mesh-free Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. The simulations to be presented in this paper are focused on the deformation dynamics of pure liquid droplets and fuel droplets with water added to the inside of the droplet. The simulations have been run at two different relative velocities.
As SPH is relatively new to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), the pure liquid droplet simulations are used to verify the SPH code by empirical correlations available in literature. Furthermore, an enhanced characteristic deformation time is proposed, leading to a good description of the temporal initial deformation behavior for all investigated test cases. In the further course, the deformation behavior of two fluid droplets are compared to the corresponding single fluid droplet simulations. The results show an influence of the added water on the deformation history.
However, it is found that, the droplet behavior can be characterized by the pure fuel Weber number.